catholicity plural catholicities
capitalized : the character of being in conformity with a Catholic church
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian
church, with more than 1.29 billion members worldwide. As one of the oldest religious
institutions in the world, it has played a prominent role in the history and development of
Western civilisation.[ Headed by the Bishop of Rome, known as the Pope, the church's in the
The Catholic Church teaches that it is the One, Holy, Catholic and Apostolic church
founded by Jesus Christ, that its bishops are the successors of Christ's apostles, and that
the Pope is the successor to Saint Peter to whom primacy was conferred by Jesus Christ.
It maintains that it practises the original Christian faith, reserving infallibility, passed down
by sacred tradition. The Latin Church, the Eastern Catholic Churches, and institutes such
as mendicant orders and enclosed monastic orders reflect a variety of theological and
spiritual emphases in the Church.
Of its seven sacraments the Eucharist is the principal one, celebrated liturgically in the
Mass. The church teaches that through consecration by a priest the sacrificial bread
and wine become the body and blood of Christ. The Virgin Mary is venerated in the
Catholic Church as Mother of God and Queen of Heaven, honoured in dogmas and
devotions. Its teaching includes sanctification through faith and evangelization of the
Gospel and Catholic social teaching, which emphasises support for the sick, the poor,
and the afflicted through the corporal and spiritual works of mercy. The Catholic Church
is the largest non-government provider of education and health care in the world.
The Catholic Church has influenced Western philosophy, culture, science, and art.
The Catholic Church shared communion with the Eastern Orthodox Church until the
East–West Schism in 1054, disputing particularly the authority of the Pope, as well as
with the Oriental Orthodox churches prior to the Chalcedonian schism in 451 over
differences in Christology. Catholics live all over the world through missions, diaspora,
and conversions. Since the 20th century the majority reside in the southern hemisphere
due to secularisation in Europe, and increased persecution in the Middle East. From the
late 20th century, the Catholic Church has been criticised for its doctrines on sexuality,
its refusal to ordain women.
|Basilica Saint Peter of Rome, City of the Vatican
|The term Catholic Church may refer to:
Catholic Church in full communion with the Bishop of Rome, known as the Pope, including the Latin Church and the 23 Eastern Catholic Churches
Other churches expressing apostolic origins and traditions of catholicity, such as:
- Eastern Orthodox Church, maintains the traditional concept of eastern-orthodox catholicity, self-designating as Eastern-Orthodox Catholic Church
- Oriental Orthodox Church, maintains the traditional concept of oriental-orthodox catholicity, self-designating as Oriental-Orthodox Catholic Church
- Assyrian Church of the East, maintains its own the traditional concept of catholicity, also self-designating as Holy Apostolic Catholic Church of the East
- Anglican Communion, maintains the Anglican concept of catholicity, self-designating as Anglican Catholic Church or Anglo-Catholic Church
Independent Catholic denominations
The Four Marks of the Church is a term describing four distinctive adjectives "One, Holy, Catholic and Apostolic" of traditional Christian ecclesiology as expressed in the Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed
completed at the First Council of Constantinople in AD 381: "[I believe] in one, holy, catholic, and apostolic Church." In Protestant theology these are sometimes called the attributes of the Church.
This creed is today recited in the liturgy of the Roman Catholic Church (both Latin and Eastern Rites), the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Oriental Orthodox Churches, the Church of the East, the Anglican Communion,
and in the worship services of many classical Protestant denominations.
While specific doctrines, based on both tradition and different interpretations of the Bible, distinguish one denomination from another, largely explaining why there are so many different ones, the Four Marks, when defined
the same way, represent a summary of what many clerical authorities have historically considered to be the most important affirmations of the Christian faith.
Pope Francis (Latin: Franciscus; Italian: Francesco; Spanish: Francisco; English Frank and French: François, born Jorge Mario Bergoglio; 17 December 1936
is the 266th and current Pope of the Catholic Church, a title he holds ex officio as Bishop of Rome, and sovereign of Vatican City. He chose Francis as his papal
from outside Europe since the Syrian Gregory III, who reigned in the 8th century.
Born in Buenos Aires, Argentina, Bergoglio worked briefly as a chemical technologist and nightclub bouncer before beginning seminary studies. He was ordained a
Catholic priest in 1969, and from 1973 to 1979 was Argentina's provincial superior of the Society of Jesus (Jesuits). He became the Archbishop of Buenos Aires in
1998 and was created a cardinal in 2001 by Pope John Paul II. He led the Argentine Church during the December 2001 riots in Argentina, and the administrations
of Néstor Kirchner and Cristina Fernández de Kirchner considered him a political rival. Following the resignation of Pope Benedict XVI on 28 February 2013, a
papal conclave elected Bergoglio as his successor on 13 March.
Throughout his public life, Pope Francis has been noted for his humility, emphasis on God's mercy, concern for the poor and commitment to interfaith dialogue. He
is credited with having a less formal approach to the papacy than his predecessors, for instance choosing to reside in the Domus Sanctae Marthae guesthouse
rather than in the papal apartments of the Apostolic Palace used by his predecessors. In addition, due to both his Jesuit and Ignatian aesthetic, he is known for
favoring simpler vestments void of ornamentation, including refusing the traditional papal mozzetta cape upon his election, choosing silver instead of gold for his
piscatory ring, and keeping the same pectoral cross he had as cardinal. He maintains that the Church should be more open and welcoming. He does not support
unbridled capitalism, Marxism, or Marxist versions of liberation theology. Francis maintains the traditional views of the Church regarding abortion, marriage,
ordination of women, and clerical celibacy. He opposes consumerism, irresponsible development, and supports taking action on climate change, a focus of his
papacy with the promulgation of Laudato si'. In international diplomacy, he helped to restore full diplomatic relations between the United States and Cuba. Since the
publication of Amoris Laetitia in 2016, Francis has faced increasingly open criticism from theological conservatives, particularly on the question of admitting civilly
divorced and remarried Catholics to Communion.
|Rev. Eric Michel childhood parish Our Lady of Grace, Hull Quebec
Demolished in 1972 after a fire.
|The baptism of the Rev. Eric Michel
in church Bulletin of 1951
|THE CATHOLIC REFORMATION OF THE 20 & 21 Centuries
According to Richard Rohr it will take 2 000 years before the catholic reformation will reach it's goal.
|Rev. Eric Michel Parent's wedding at Notre-Dame de Grace in January 1951
|Fr. Robert Spitzer, S.J., Ph.D.,
Is a Catholic Priest in the Society of Jesus
|Fr. Richard Rohr
Is a Franciscan priest of the
New Mexico Province
|lia Delio, OSF
Is a Franciscan Sister
of Washington, DC
|Georges Henri Joseph Édouard Lemaître
Belgian Catholic Priest, astronomer and professor
of physics at the Catholic University of Leuven
Pierre Teilhard de Chardin SJ
French philosopher and Jesuit priest
who trained as a paleontologist and
geologist and took part in the
discovery of Peking Man. He conceived
the vitalist idea of the Omega Point, a
maximum level of complexity and
consciousness towards which he
believed the universe was evolving,
and developed Vladimir Vernadsky's
concept of noosphere.
No ones of the persons of the Catholic Clergy mentioned on this page endorse, caution, approve, support or have any
connection direct or indirect with Eric Michel Ministries International, we use their names has a reference to the theologie
proposition, has we adhere partially keeping our Unitarian view on Jesus of Nazareth.