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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In philosophy, panpsychism is the view that consciousness, mind or soul (psyche) is a universal
and primordial feature of all things. Panpsychists see themselves as minds in a world of minds.
Panpsychism is one of the oldest philosophical theories, and has been ascribed to philosophers
like Thales, Plato, Spinoza, Leibniz and William James. Panpsychism can also be seen in
eastern philosophies such as Vedanta and Mahayana Buddhism. During the 19th century,
panpsychism was the default theory in philosophy of mind, but it saw a decline during the
middle years of the 20th century with the rise of logical positivism. The recent interest in the
hard problem of consciousness has once again made panpsychism a widespread theory.
|Illustration of the Neoplatonic
Concept of the World Soul
Emanating from The Absolute
|According to D. S. Clarke, panpsychist and panexperientialist aspects can be found in the Huayan and Tiantai Buddhist doctrines of Buddha
nature, which was often attributed to inanimate objects such as lotus flowers and mountains. Tiantai patriarch Zhanran argued that "even
non-sentient beings have Buddha nature." Who, then, is "animate" and who "inanimate"? Within the assembly of the Lotus, all are present
without division. In the case of grass, trees and the soil...whether they merely lift their feet or energetically traverse the long path, they will
all reach Nirvana.
According to the 9th-century Shingon Buddhist thinker Kukai, the Dharmakaya is nothing other than the physical universe and natural
objects like rocks and stones are included as part of the supreme embodiment of the Buddha. The Soto Zen master Dogen also argued for the
universality of Buddha nature. According to Dogen, "fences, walls, tiles, and pebbles" are also "mind". Dogen also argued that "insentient
beings expound the teachings" and that the words of the eternal Buddha "are engraved on trees and on rocks . . . in fields and in villages".
This is the message of his "Mountains and Waters Sutra".
It fall in the same sens as our Cosmic Christ who created all univers and everything in it.
|In the art of the Japanese rock garden, the artist must be aware of the rocks' "ishigokoro" (‘heart,’ or ‘mind’)