Brain Research relating to any aspect of Cartesian Dualism. The front image
contains a Least Cosmological Unit (LCU) part of the gating Mechanism
allowing the anthropic principle to enter living systems. The obverse An image
of Plato with Greek wording. Date Circa 2009
Israeli physicist and philosopher and received the
Avshalom Elitzur was a senior lecturer at the Unit for
Interdisciplinary Studies, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-
Gan, Israel. He is noted for the Elitzur–Vaidman bomb-
testing problem in quantum mechanics, which was
publicised by Roger Penrose in his book Shadows of the
Elitzur received no formal university training before
obtaining his PhD. His parents emigrated from Iran to
Israel in 1959 when he was two years old, and settled in
Rehovot. He left school at the age of sixteen and began
working as a laboratory technician at the Weizmann
Institute of Science in Rehovot.
In 1987, he published his book: Into the Holy of Holies: Psychoanalytic Insights into the Bible and
Judaism. During that same year, he was invited to present an unpublished manuscript on quantum
mechanics at an international conference in Temple University in Philadelphia. Consequently, he
a doctoral thesis on the subject. He was the chief editor of natural sciences in Encyclopaedia
Hebraica. In 2008, he was a visiting professor at Joseph Fourier University. Elitzur is the founder of
the Iyar, The Israeli Institute for Advanced Research.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In some Indian religions, a chakra (Sanskrit cakra, "wheel") is thought to be an energy point or node in the subtle body. Chakras are
believed to be part of the subtle body, not the physical body, and as such, are the meeting points of the subtle (non-physical) energy
channels called nadi. Nadi are believed to be channels in the subtle body through which the life force (prana) (non-physical) or vital
energy (non-physical) moves. Various scriptural texts and teachings present a different number of chakras. It's believed that there are
many chakras in the subtle human body, according to the tantric texts, but there are seven chakras that are considered to be the most
In Western culture, a concept similar to that of prana can be traced back as far as the 18th century's Franz Anton Mesmer, who used "animal
magnetism" to treat disease. However, it was only in 1927 that the shakta theory of seven main chakras, that has become most popular in the West,
was introduced, largely through the translation of two Indian texts: the Sat-Cakra-Nirupana and the Padaka-Pancaka, by Sir John Woodroffe, alias
Arthur Avalon, in a book titled The Serpent Power.
This book is extremely detailed and complex, and later the ideas were developed into the predominant Western view of the chakras by C. W.
Leadbeater in his book The Chakras. Many of the views which directed Leadbeater's understanding of the chakras were influenced by previous
theosophist authors, in particular Johann Georg Gichtel, a disciple of Jakob Böhme, and his book Theosophia Practica (1696), in which Gichtel
directly refers to inner force centres, a concept reminiscent of the chakras.
In Anatomy of the Spirit (1996), Caroline Myss describes the function of chakras as follows: "Every thought and experience you've ever had in
your life gets filtered through these chakra databases. Each event is recorded into your cells...". The chakras are described as being aligned in an
ascending column from the base of the spine to the top of the head. New Age practices often associate each chakra with a certain colour. In various
traditions, chakras are associated with multiple physiological functions, an aspect of consciousness, a classical element, and other distinguishing
characteristics. They are visualised as lotuses or flowers with a different number of petals in every chakra.
The chakras are thought to vitalize the physical body and to be associated with interactions of a physical, emotional and mental nature. They are
considered loci of life energy or prana (which New Age belief equates with shakti, qi in Chinese, ki in Japanese, koach-ha-guf in Hebrew, bios in
Greek, and aether in both Greek and English), which is thought to flow among them along pathways called nadi. The function of the chakras is to
spin and draw in this energy to keep the spiritual, mental, emotional and physical health of the body in balance.
In his book on Japa Yoga (Himalaya Press, 1978), Swami Sivananda states that a yogi that practices Japa only with the Om and is successful at
Mahasamyama (oneness with the object, in this case, a word being meditated on) becomes a direct disciple of the Om, the most holy of all words
and syllables (the same as the word of creation as recognised by the Torah, although this is not professed or quite possibly not even recognised by
those of secular authority in either Judaism or Christianity). Thus, the yogi who achieves this feat needs no guru or Sat-guru to achieve any spiritual
goal (an archetype or an Ascended Master, a Krishna, a Rama, a Jesus, a Nanak, a Buddha). Swami Sivananda mentions that this yogi has a path
that is, in all recognisable ways and manners, reverse of that of other yogis or spiritual aspirants and their paths, in that this spiritual aspirant then
works through the chakras, mastering them from the crown down. Satprem explains, in page 67 of his book Sri Aurobindo, or the Adventure of
Consciousness (ISBN 81-85137-60-9), that, in Sri Aurobindo and the Mother's Integral Yoga, the practitioner experiences a "descent" where the
Grace and Light works through and enlightens the chakras from the crown chakra downwards.
Another interpretation of the seven chakras is presented by writer and artist Zachary Selig. In his book Kundalini Awakening, a Gentle Guide to
Chakra Activation and Spiritual Growth, he presents a unique codex titled "Relaxatia", a solar Kundalini paradigm that is a codex of the human
chakra system and the solar light spectrum, designed to activate Kundalini through his colour-coded chakra paintings.
Some system models describe one or more transpersonal chakras above the crown chakra, as well as an Earth star chakra below the feet. There are
also held to be many minor chakras (for example, between the major chakras).
Rudolf Steiner considered the chakra system to be dynamic and evolving. He suggested that this system has become different for modern people
than it was in ancient times and that it will, in turn, be radically different in future times. Steiner described a sequence of development that begins
with the upper chakras and moves down, rather than moving in the opposite direction. He gave suggestions on how to develop the chakras through
disciplining thoughts, feelings, and will.
The seven chakras.
According to Florin Lowndes, a "spiritual student" can further develop and deepen or elevate thinking consciousness when taking the step from the
"ancient path" of schooling to the "new path" represented by Steiner's The Philosophy of Freedom.
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From Baptist to Mystic Contemplative Sue Monk Kidd
ultimately came to the mystical realization that: "I am speaking
of recognizing the hidden truth that we are one with all people.
We are part of them and they are part of us When we
encounter another person, we should walk as if we were upon
holy ground. We should respond as if God dwells there." from
A Time of Departing by Ray Yungen, p. 134
Sue Monk Kidd, born August 12, 1948, is a writer from the
Southern United States, best known for her novel, The Secret
Life of Bees. Her first three books were spiritual memoirs
describing her experiences in contemplative Christianity, the
last telling the story of her journey from evangelical
Christianity to feminist theology. God’s Joyful Surprise:
Finding Yourself Loved (Harper SanFrancisco, 1988) is
focused on abandoning a hopeless quest for perfection and
accepting one is loved as one is. When the Heart Waits:
Spiritual Direction for Life's Sacred Questions (Harper
SanFrancisco, 1990) tells of her painful midlife crisis. Finally,
The Dance of the Dissident Daughter: A Woman's Journey
from Christian Tradition to the Sacred Feminine (Harper
SanFrancisco, 1996), discussed her abandonment of
fundamentalism and her encounter with women's spirituality
She was influenced in her 20s by the writings of Thomas
Merton to explore her inner life. In her 30s, she took writing
courses at Emory University and Anderson College in South
Carolina, now Anderson University, as well as studying at
Sewanee, Bread Loaf, and other writers' conferences.